,---.| | `---.|--- ,---.,---.,---.,---| || | ,---|| || | `---'`---'` `---^` '`---' "Strand" is an open-source implementation of the identically named parallel Prolog dialect as described in the book "Strand: New Concepts for Parallel Programming" by Ian Foster and Stephen Taylor. Strand represents a very elegant and concise notation for expressing concurrent and distributed algorithms using only a small number of fundamental language constructs and a very simple execution model. This implementation of Strand is written in Forth and runs on Linux x86-64/ARM, Mac OS X x86-64 and OpenBSD amd64 systems, has no dependencies and is entirely self-contained. Operating system facilities are invoked directly via system calls, no C runtime library is required. The Forth system is provided with source code and is able to recompile itself into an ELF or Mach-O binary. "Strand" is a trademark of Artificial Intelligence Ltd., which once offered a commercial implementation. Version: 6 Read the User's Manual
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Release History: Version 1: Initial release Version 2: * Language changes: - Double-quoted strings can now be used as a more convenient syntax for lists of character codes. - "command_line/1" now includes the program name as the first element in the returned list. - Added primitive processes "get_global/2", "put_global/2" and "chdir/1". * VM changes: - On x86_64, the Forth engine is now significantly faster due to inlining of the inner interpreter in the assembly language kernel. - Signal handling has been implemented for Darwin, and a bug in the Mach-O binary generation been fixed. Also, the interface to the "pipe(2)" system call is working now (Many thanks to Jorge Acereda MaciĆ”!) * Library changes: - Added "list:append/2", "list:split/4", "list:trim/3", "list:trim_left/3" and "list:trim_right/3". - "proc:execute/3" accidentally left file-descriptors open in the parent process. - "proc:execute/3" now properly searches PATH for locating the program invoked in the subprocess. - Added "proc:capture/3". - Added the "~s" (char-list) format specifier to "fmt:format/*" - "io:read_byte_stream/2" and "io:read_char_stream/2" do not close the input stream at end of input. * Tool changes: - Fixed incorrect passing of debug options to remote process-invocations when using the "strand" tool in strand-utils. Version 3: * Language changes: - Added "run/3" to invoke tasks in the current module. - Dropped the guard "file_exists/1" and added the primitive process "file_status/2" to obtain information about the type and existance of a file. - "open_file/3", "shell/2", "file_size/2", "chdir/1", "file_modification_time/2" and "getenv/2" accept strings or character lists as their first argument. - Added a third argument to "put_global" to signal when the store is complete. - The numerical comparison guards ">/2", "</2", ">=/2" and "=</2" accept now any numerical expression as arguments. - Added numerical comparison guards "=:=/2" and "\=:=/2". - On OpenBSD, "pledge/2" and "unveil/2" can be used to restrict access to operating-system facilities and the file-system. * VM changes: - Added the "-v" option to show the VM version. - When the message-file designated by the "-f" option could not be opened, a proper error is shown instead of crashing. - File reading/writing behaves properly in the presence of signals triggered by child-process termination. - Increased the port size to 32k. - When comparing values for equality, identical remotes compare equal without requiring message traffic. * Compiler changes: - Error handling has been overhauled and provides somewhat improved error messages. - Slightly reorganized compiler toplevel module and renamed it to "stc". * Tool changes: - "strand": - The "nodes" property holds now the total number of nodes, including any remote nodes. - Several bugfixes with regard to start + cleanup of remote processes. - passes "-i <strandhome>/lib/<OSNAME>" to invocations of the VM. - "strandc": - allows compiling multiple files in one invocation. - correctly searches location of VM and added "-home" option to show it. * Library changes: - Added the "~?" (recursive format) format specifier to "fmt:format/*". - Repaired handling of "~s" with "fmt:format_chars/*". - Fixed several bugs in the "proc" module related to the invocation of external processes. - "proc:execute/4": changed order of arguments and added PID to results. * Documentation changes: - Documented internal primitive processes in HACKING. Version 4: * Language changes: - The "time/0" expression operator has been replaced with a primitive process ("time/1"). - The "pledge" and "unveil" primitive processes take a third argument now to indicate completion. - Added the "set_user_id/2", "module_exports/2" and "deref/2" primitive processes. - Added expression operators "max/2" and "min/2". * VM changes: - When listening on multiple files, registered listeners where not always correctly unregistered once input was available. - When idle, the time waited between attempts to lock a port or receive a message progressively increases to reduce CPU cycles for long-running nodes and can be tuned using the "-r" command line option. * Tool changes: - "strandc": - Circular assignments detected when compiling a file show offending variable instead of producing an infinite error message. - Redefinition of internal or primitive processes signals a compiler error now. - Non-anonymous singleton variables in process definitions produce a warning, which greatly reduces inadvertedly caused deadlocks by wrongly named variables. * Library changes: - "io:read_byte_stream/2" and "io:read_char_stream/2" are now non-blocking. - added "io:split_lines/2". - added "list:scan/4", "list:take/4", "list:drop/3" and "list:cut/5". - "fmt" module: fixed a bug in handling of "~?" with an initial list argument. Version 5: * Language changes: - Added support for "ports", a practical stream abstraction, with new primitives "open_port/2", "send/2", "send/3" and new guard "port/1". - Added "get_global/3". - The peer name "all" can be used to perform a broadcast by invoking a process on all peers in a collection of nodes. - "command_line/1" now only returns the arguments (without the executable name) and ignores previous arguments if "--" is given. - Added the guard "idle" for triggering processes when a node or a network of nodes becomes idle. * VM changes: - Fixed a nasty bug in module-unmarshaling code that would result in message ports not being properly cleared after receiving a message containing an already loaded module. - Ordering of modules using one of the comparison guards like "@>/2" is now stable. - Implemented idleness detection for single or multiple nodes. - Small integers are encoded in bytecode in a more efficient manner which reduces the size of compiled modules considerably. - Also, small integers are encoded in the internal marshalling format more efficiently. * Protocol changes: - The termination protocol has been extended to a two-stage process to make it more reliable. * Compiler changes: - Fixed bug that caused deadlock when an incomplete term was parsed. - the performance of clause-indexing for atomic arguments in the first argument position of a process definition has been improved. * Library changes: - Moved set operations "union/3", "intersection/3" and "difference/3" from "list" into new "set" module. - "fmt" module: added "~x" output format (hex integer). - "list" module: added "pad_left/4", "pad_right/4" and "make/*". - Added "strand" module for reading Strand terms. - Fixed some serious bugs in the "avl" module. * Documentation changes: - Added section to MANUAL describing the VM execution model. - Extended documentation of node-communication protcols. * Tool changes: - "strand": added "keep-remote-files" option to retain log- and output-files of started remote nodes. Version 6: * Language changes: - Removed "randomize/1" primitive and "random/1" expression operator (See new "rnd" module for an alternative interface to random and peudo-random numbers). - Added "writeln/2". * Compiler changes: - Second-level clause-indexing has been added for tuples and list heads, which reduces matching overhead in large process definitions. * Tool changes: - The "strand" tool has been rewritten in sh(1) and is now included in the base distribution. - "strand"/"strandc": the symlink resolution wasn't correctly handled for obtaining the home-location of the VM and libraries. - "strand": the handling of "start", "stop", "premake" and "postmake" project properties properly expands the values before invoking them as shell commands. - "plot" has been reimplemented as a sh(1) script. - "strand" now supports distributed projects with more than 2 machines. * Library changes: - Topologies exchanged between "ns" nodes on different machines are now ensured to be fully instantiated as peer-resolution on a remote ns node with a topology data structure that contained remote variable references could result in a deadlock. - "ns" nodes now include tunnels in the total node count to ensure all tunnel nodes are properly running before starting idle detection and other communication. - Added library for pseudo random numbers and access to system random source ("rnd" module). - idleness-detection can now be disabled by passing an option to the "ns" module.